Manufacturing means handmade work . To manufacture is to produce with manual labor. In the manufacturing process there is the division of labor, where each worker performs an operation using individual instruments. Manufacturing followed handicraft in the fifteenth century as a form of production and work organization.
Manufacturing is a manufacturing establishment where the production technique is handcrafted, but the work is performed by large numbers of workers, who must complete a workday with time to start and finish, under the direction of a boss.
Although the term “manufacturing” originates in “hand workshops”, today the term is used to refer to factories or a large industrial establishment. The term “manufactured goods” is used to name goods produced in industries.
Lean manufacturing is an operating philosophy created in Japan after World War II, specifically at Toyota’s factory, with the purpose of eliminating waste and becoming competitive with US auto companies.
Lean production aims at flexible manufacturing with low inventories, reducing breakage and failure, lean layouts, identifying activities that add value to the product, etc. The overriding goal is to meet customer needs at the right time.
Reverse manufacturing is a technological innovation that allows the recovery of materials and raw materials that are part of the so-called electronic waste, following the principle of losing less and preserving more, deconstructing and rebuilding.
With the principle of sustainability, this technology allows to recover scrap products such as refrigerators, electronics, mobile phones, batteries, computers, catalysts, among others, which after a sorting process are disassembled, classified, crushed, compacted and sent to a new production process, in the form of raw material.
Machinofacture is the mechanized industry that emerged with the evolution of manufacturing, with the introduction of steam engines to move machines that depended on human force, animals, winds or water.
The use of the machine increased the speed and volume of production, the worker began to produce much more products in a much shorter time compared to manufacturing, was the beginning of modern industry. The worker started to feed the machine, control its speed and ensure its maintenance.
The Industrial Revolution was the result of a process of great transformations in the mode of production of goods, which began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century.
The manufacture was gradually being replaced by the machinofatura. Owners of manufacturing workshops began to invest in new production techniques and new technologies such as the steam engine and the mechanical loom.
The increasing introduction of machines into workshops has sparked a revolution in the production of goods. It was the beginning of the “First Industrial Revolution”, characterized by the division of labor and worker specialization in a given task, the use of coal-fired heat-powered machines, wage labor, and standardized mass production.
The discovery of new sources of energy – oil, water (hydroelectric power plants), uranium and other inventions, dating from the second half of the nineteenth century to about the first half of the twentieth century, are part of the “Second Industrial Revolution.”
From the 1970s onwards, the development of electronics and the emergence of information technology enabled the introduction of new production techniques. A new phase of industry has begun, known as the “Third Industrial Revolution.”